Placebos are widely used in medical practice, although the exact numbers are not known. Surveys have shown that somewhere between 57-97% of doctors admit to using placebos in their clinical practice. Placebos would not be used so prevalently if they did not have positive effects, but it's vitally important that placebos are used as ethically as possible to avoid harming the doctor-patient relationship. Here, we outline different types of placebo usage, the ethical considerations and the current medical guidelines for placebos in clinical practice.
In 1983, a groundbreaking study was published demonstrating that architectural environment influences recovery from surgery. Benedetti described the placebo as "the whole ritual of the therapeutic act", so why shouldn't that also include the clinical environment? In this article, we explore the 1983 study and the implications of this in global health.